In the last issue (September/October 2011), we covered an ongoing heat wave in the Central United States. This spell of hot weather went on to produce the nation's warmest summer on record since 1936, and the hottest ever in the South-Central states. In this issue, we'll shift northward to Canada and the Arctic Ocean. For many amateur meteorologists, during the summer and fall, what takes place there may be somewhat of a mystery, because the area gets little attention except when Alberta Clippers and Arctic outbreaks begin their march southeastward. However in terms of wind, clouds, and precipitation, it remains quite active and is still the primary breeding ground for cold air masses that reach places like New York and Chicago during the summer.
TIM VASQUEZ is a former Air Force forecaster and author of Digital Atmosphere, a weather forecasting software program. He lives near Norman, Oklahoma, where he keeps busy as a weather consultant and software develope